It started from Italy in the 14 th century and expanded in Europe in the late 15 th century. It is sometimes thought that the Church, as an institution, formally sold indulgences at the time. French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874) defined "The Renaissance" in his 1855 work Histoire de France as an entire historical period, whereas previously it had been used in a more limited sense. Restaurants near The Renaissance Society: (0.17 mi) Grounds of Being The Divinity School Coffee Shop (0.18 mi) Einstein Bros. Bagels (0.18 mi) Sky Cafe (0.18 mi) Hallowed Grounds (0.18 mi) Subway; View all restaurants near The Renaissance Society on Tripadvisor $ During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. Well after the first artistic return to classicism had been exemplified in the sculpture of Nicola Pisano, Florentine painters led by Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally. Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point is 1401, when the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral (Ghiberti won). ", Ferguson, Wallace K. "The Interpretation of the Renaissance: Suggestions for a Synthesis. [79] From Petrarch's Italian perspective, this new period (which included his own time) was an age of national eclipse. Writers such as François Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet, and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Renaissance. He may have been the Venetian sculptor, Alevisio Lamberti da Montagne. With rediscovered knowledge from the 1st-century writer Vitruvius and the flourishing discipline of mathematics, Brunelleschi formulated the Renaissance style that emulated and improved on classical forms. The Italians, with their advanced technology, may have influenced the invention of the stone tented roof (the wooden tents were known in Russia and Europe long before). It was cast in 1586 by Andrey Chokhov and is notable for its rich, decorative relief. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned and individuals had more leisure time for study. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 17:14. One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. [93] The most important humanists living in Matthias' court were Antonio Bonfini and the famous Hungarian poet Janus Pannonius. Francis I imported Italian art and artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, and built ornate palaces at great expense. [32][full citation needed][33][full citation needed][12][34][page needed] One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity. [35] The movement to reintegrate the regular study of Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts back into the Western European curriculum is usually dated to the 1396 invitation from Coluccio Salutati to the Byzantine diplomat and scholar Manuel Chrysoloras (c. 1355–1415) to teach Greek in Florence. Other important figures of Hungarian Renaissance include Bálint Balassi (poet), Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos (poet), Bálint Bakfark (composer and lutenist), and Master MS (fresco painter). Invitation for you and four guests to the annual Director's Dinner. Jill Ingrassia-Zingales [42], One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation in Florence caused by the Black Death, which hit Europe between 1348 and 1350, resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th century Italy. A History of the Renaissance Society: The First Seventy-five Years (Book) John Vinci , Thomas C. Heagy , Jean Fulton , Kostelanetz Richard , Susanne Ghez , Anne Rorimer , Joe Scanlan 2004 It was not just the growing awareness of classical antiquity that drove this development, according to Vasari, but also the growing desire to study and imitate nature.[84]. The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. It is believed that the Cathedral of the Metropolitan Peter in Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, another work of Aleviz Novyi, later served as an inspiration for the so-called octagon-on-tetragon architectural form in the Moscow Baroque of the late 17th century. The Society produces the Renaissance Quarterly journal and sponsors publications, fellowships, awards, and other benefits for its members, to support their research and recognize their accomplishments. During the Renaissance the family had a defined nuclear structure: father was the head of the household the mother was the temporary caretaker the children fell under their parents’ rule. [132], Johan Huizinga (1872–1945) acknowledged the existence of the Renaissance but questioned whether it was a positive change. The multi-national Polish state experienced a substantial period of cultural growth thanks in part to a century without major wars – aside from conflicts in the sparsely populated eastern and southern borderlands. During the Renaissance the family had a defined nuclear structure: father was the head of the household the mother was the temporary caretaker the children fell under their parents’ rule. [101] He had new monasteries built in Late Gothic style for the Franciscans in Kolozsvár, Szeged and Hunyad, and for the Paulines in Fejéregyháza. [120] After joining the Portuguese exploration of Brazil in 1500, Amerigo Vespucci coined the term New World,[122] in his letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. The Renaissance Society is registered 501(c)(3). II, Galletti e Cocci, Firenze, 1907, pp. Major support for the Renaissance Society’s Next Century Fund is provided by: Jorge Cauz and Ugo Alfano Casati “The Ren”—as we are known by many—is an independent, non-collecting museum driven by an uncompromising commitment to artists and their ideas. "Renaissance Historians of different kinds will often make some choice between a long Renaissance (say, 1300-1600), a short one (1453- 1527) , or somewhere in between (the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as is commonly adopted ...", For information on this earlier, very different approach to a different set of ancient texts (scientific texts rather than cultural texts) see, "Renaissance And Reformation France" Mack P. Holt pp. Corvinus's library is part of UNESCO World Heritage. The relationship between Hungarian and Italian Gothic styles was a second reason—exaggerated breakthrough of walls is avoided, preferring clean and light structures. The survivors of the plague found not only that the prices of food were cheaper but also that lands were more abundant, and many of them inherited property from their dead relatives. Family law varies from culture to culture, but in its broadest application it defines the legal relationships among family members as well as the relationships between families and society at large. Pope Paul III came to the papal throne (1534–1549) after the sack of Rome in 1527, with uncertainties prevalent in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. The renaissance period brought a lot of economic, cultural and social change that had a change in women’s life. By 1650, Dutch cartographers had mapped most of the coastline of the continent, which they named New Holland, except the east coast which was charted in 1770 by Captain Cook. The years before the Renaissance were of great suffering for Italy and most of Europe. ... What was the role of the mother wife in the Italian family? Though she became famous and infamous for her role in France's religious wars, she made a direct contribution in bringing arts, sciences and music (including the origins of ballet) to the French court from her native Florence. [16], Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity,[17] while social and economic historians, especially of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras,[18] which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties". [77] While the schism was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414), a resulting reform movement known as Conciliarism sought to limit the power of the pope. Bernardim Ribeiro developed pastoral romance, plays by Gil Vicente fused it with popular culture, reporting the changing times, and Luís de Camões inscribed the Portuguese feats overseas in the epic poem Os Lusíadas. [97] Two new wings and a hanging garden were built at the royal castle of Buda, and the palace at Visegrád was rebuilt in Renaissance style. The Society for Renaissance Studies (SRS), founded in 1967, provides a national, and international forum for all those - whether academics, independent scholars, postgraduates and undergraduates, school teachers and students, or members of the general public - who have an interest in any aspect of the study of the Renaissance. In England, the sixteenth century marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare (1564 –1616), Christopher Marlowe (1564 – 1593), Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 1599), Sir Thomas More (1478 – 1535), Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626), Sir Philip Sidney (1554 – 1586), architects (such as Inigo Jones (1573 – 1652), who introduced Italianate architecture to England), and composers such as Thomas Tallis (1505 – 1585), John Taverner (c. 1490 – 1545), and William Byrd (c.1539/40 or 1543 – 1623). In 1533, a fourteen-year-old Caterina de' Medici (1519–1589), born in Florence to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, married Henry II of France, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude. All Renaissance Society publications are made possible by the Mansueto Foundation Publications Program. The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago presents contemporary art exhibitions, events, and publications. of setting forth a linear Whiggish view of history in seeing the Renaissance as the origin of the modern world.[18]. The man had dominance over women; they saw women as Eve (Adam and Eve) more sinful than man. ", Ferguson, Wallace K. "Recent trends in the economic historiography of the Renaissance. (Since the 19th century, scientific knowledge has been assimilated by the rest of the world). Science and art were intermingled in the early Renaissance, with polymath artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. These libraries were places where ideas were exchanged and where scholarship and reading were considered both pleasurable and beneficial to the mind and soul. Columbus and Vesalius – The Age of Discoverers. [15], The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) in his The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries. In his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages, he argued that the Renaissance was a period of decline from the High Middle Ages, destroying much that was important. That led to the development of a special form of folk art known as lubok printing, which persisted in Russia well into the 19th century. In 1606, the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon sailed from the East Indies in the VOC ship Duyfken and landed in Australia. This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Gallery Attendant The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy, a place with a rich cultural history where wealthy citizens could afford to support budding artists. As a result of the decimation in the populace the value of the working class increased, and commoners came to enjoy more freedom. Murray, Stuart A.P. The discovery in 1492 of the New World by Christopher Columbus challenged the classical worldview. Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece Don Quixote is credited as the first Western novel. It was the beginning of a new era of rebirth for arts, science and culture. Venice was Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of textiles. Prince Ivan III introduced Renaissance architecture to Russia by inviting a number of architects from Italy, who brought new construction techniques and some Renaissance style elements with them, while in general following the traditional designs of Russian architecture. 130 likes. [23] Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin. The Genoese likely developed this beverage with the help of the alchemists of Provence, who used an Arab-invented distillation apparatus to convert grape must into alcohol. The term first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas (middle times). Large-scale building schemes provided ample and long term work for the artists, for example, the building of the Friss (New) Castle in Buda, the castles of Visegrád, Tata and Várpalota. Holding both Church and Empire at bay, these city republics were devoted to notions of liberty. 773 795 0906, Pierre Sondeijker Formal meetings of elected representatives were suspended during the height of the epidemic due to the chaotic conditions in the city, but a small group of officials was appointed to conduct the affairs of the city, which ensured continuity of government. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, that is to understand it rationally. Composed as a series of dialogues set in a country house in the Mugello countryside outside Florence during the plague of 1430, Palmieri expounds on the qualities of the ideal citizen. The Islamic Golden Age has been also sometimes termed with the Islamic Renaissance.[139]. The long-imagined south polar continent was eventually sighted in 1820. Throughout the Renaissance it had been known as Terra Australis, or 'Australia' for short. Medici Family . A unique characteristic of some Renaissance libraries is that they were open to the public. The intense international exchange produced several cosmopolitan humanist scholars, including Francisco de Holanda, André de Resende and Damião de Góis, a friend of Erasmus who wrote with rare independence on the reign of King Manuel I. Diogo and André de Gouveia made relevant teaching reforms via France. Next. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. MacArthur Fund for Arts and Culture at Prince The work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck was particularly influential on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and stylistically in terms of naturalism in representation. Linked to this was anti-monarchical thinking, represented in the famous early Renaissance fresco cycle The Allegory of Good and Bad Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (painted 1338–1340), whose strong message is about the virtues of fairness, justice, republicanism and good administration. Please contact Jessica Cochran Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475), another humanist, is most known for his work Della vita civile ("On Civic Life"; printed 1528), which advocated civic humanism, and for his influence in refining the Tuscan vernacular to the same level as Latin. Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark,[25] play down the Renaissance in favour of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ages, which married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism. [133] Meanwhile, George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was perhaps less original than has traditionally been supposed. We offer artists the time, space, resources, and freedom that are vital for ambitious experimentation and risk-taking. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. [134] Finally, Joan Kelly argued that the Renaissance led to greater gender dichotomy, lessening the agency women had had during the Middle Ages. [51], In some ways, Renaissance humanism was not a philosophy but a method of learning. The Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) first used the term rinascita in his book The Lives of the Artists (published 1550). Kristeller, Paul Oskar, and Michael Mooney. 5811 South Ellis Avenue "Renaissance Italy and the Muslim Mediterranean in Recent Historical Work". In the first period of the Italian Renaissance, humanists favoured the study of humanities over natural philosophy or applied mathematics, and their reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe. Chief Preparator [39][40][41] The relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neoplatonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the greatest works of the Renaissance were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. [97] Matthias commissioned the leading Italian artists of his age to embellish his palaces: for instance, the sculptor Benedetto da Majano and the painters Filippino Lippi and Andrea Mantegna worked for him. [90] During the long reign of emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg the Royal Castle of Buda became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. Served as advisers to the king, character, Grace, talent, classy, warrior, classical edu, interest in the arts. Scholars have noted several features unique to Florentine cultural life that may have caused such a cultural movement. [119] The Polish Renaissance lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and was the Golden Age of Polish culture. Some of the important questions dealt with in family law include the terms and parameters of marriage, the status of children, and the succession of property from one generation to the next. Richard Wright and Valerie Carberry. Registrar The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the modern age. The purpose of humanism was to create a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in virtually any situation. [105] The fame of his magnanimity encouraged many scholars—mostly Italian—to settle in Buda. [85] Moreover, Michelet distinguished between what he called, "the bizarre and monstrous" quality of the Middle Ages and the democratic values that he, as a vocal Republican, chose to see in its character. Unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. The late Renaissance in Spain produced artists such as El Greco and composers such as Tomás Luis de Victoria and Antonio de Cabezón. Canice Prendergast In the 20th century, scholars began to break the Renaissance into regional and national movements. Renaissance marriages were not simply personal matters; they were crucial to the network of alliances that underlay a family’s prosperity and prospects and that, in turn, formed the fabric of loyalties, affection, and obligation that supported civic institutions. The late Middle Ages was a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy, culminating in the Western Schism, in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome. The new kind of scientific activity emerged only in a few countries of Western Europe, and it was restricted to that small area for about two hundred years. [28], In stark contrast to the High Middle Ages, when Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics,[29] Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts. Renaissance Cartography Talk – Atlas by Battista Agnese 9/9/2021 » 9/12/2021 Everyday Dress and the Reconstruction of Early Modern Material Culture, 1550–1650 What was expected of the nobility in Renaissance society? Charles H. Haskins (1870–1937), for example, made a case for a Renaissance of the 12th century. In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought. The family is based on people who live together and take on certain roles that fulfill their Perhaps the most succinct expression of his perspective on humanism is in a 1465 poetic work La città di vita, but an earlier work, Della vita civile, is more wide-ranging. This development is depicted in the large world map Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Tabula made by the Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in 1648 to commemorate the Peace of Westphalia. [67] The willingness to question previously held truths and search for new answers resulted in a period of major scientific advancements. [107][105] This circle of educated men introduced the ideas of Neoplatonism to Hungary. The demographic decline due to the plague had economic consequences: the prices of food dropped and land values declined by 30–40% in most parts of Europe between 1350 and 1400. Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg (ruling 1493–1519) was the first truly Renaissance monarch of the Holy Roman Empire. Pindar and the Renaissance Hymn-Ode, 1450-1700 By Stella P. Revard Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001 Read preview Overview New Ways of Looking at Old Texts: Papers of the Renaissance English Text Society, 1992-1996 By W. Speed Hill Medieval & Renaissance Texts & … De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body) by Andreas Vesalius, gave a new confidence to the role of dissection, observation, and the mechanistic view of anatomy. Other periods of cultural rebirth have also been termed "renaissances", such as the Bengal Renaissance, Tamil Renaissance, Nepal Bhasa renaissance, al-Nahda or the Harlem Renaissance. The San Francisco Renaissance was a vibrant period of exploratory poetry and fiction writing in that city in the mid-20th century. As early as 1386 Genoese ambassadors brought the first aqua vitae ("water of life") to Moscow and presented it to Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy., For press inquiries: [89], The new Italian trend combined with existing national traditions to create a particular local Renaissance art. During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. 1430.[126]. Our work with artists frequently results in newly commissioned art, and their presentations in our 3,000 sq ft gallery spur further scholarly and creative reflections in our publications and public programs. Political philosophers such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers and applied them in critiques of contemporary government. At the end of the 15th century Luca Pacioli published the first work on bookkeeping, making him the founder of accounting.[64]. Four complimentary guest passes per year. [117] The spread of the printing press technology boosted the Renaissance in Northern Europe as elsewhere, with Venice becoming a world center of printing. [d] The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Palmieri drew on Roman philosophers and theorists, especially Cicero, who, like Palmieri, lived an active public life as a citizen and official, as well as a theorist and philosopher and also Quintilian. Glenn Holland The Renaissance's emergence in Italy was most likely the result of the complex interaction of the above factors. Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: the Kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States at the center, the Milanese and the Genoese to the north and west respectively, and the Venetians to the east. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual cultural heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation. Ivan Moskowitz The term can also be used in cinema. [100] Matthias also hired the Italian military engineer Aristotele Fioravanti to direct the rebuilding of the forts along the southern frontier. This, however, was not the practice. In the 1330s Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua (ancient) and to the Christian period as nova (new). After seven years at the helm of the Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, Solveig Øvstebø has announced that she will step down in February 2020 and return with her family to Norway. A number of libraries appeared as manifestations of immense wealth joined with a love of books. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. A factor that promoted the spread of secularism was the inability of the Church to offer assistance against the Black Death. [48], It has long been a matter of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Skinner reports that there were many defences of liberty such as the Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475) celebration of Florentine genius not only in art, sculpture and architecture, but "the remarkable efflorescence of moral, social and political philosophy that occurred in Florence at the same time". Free and open to the public. Epidemics ravaged cities, particularly children. Da Vinci set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics, and he devised principles of research method that led Fritjof Capra to classify him as the "father of modern science". Project Assistant, Raven Thomas Abdul-Aleem She has since redoubled the institution’s commitment to the production of new works of art, commissioning projects by Mathias Poledna, Irena Haiduk, Peter Wächtler, and Jennifer Packer, among others. How can we describe the roles that the family had in Renaissance society? [30][full citation needed] By the early 15th century, the bulk of the surviving such Latin literature had been recovered; the Greek phase of Renaissance humanism was under way, as Western European scholars turned to recovering ancient Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts. Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the Islamic Golden Age (normally in translation), but Greek literary, oratorical and historical works (such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides) were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars. Trade was expanding and the cities were growing bigger and wealthier. Donations were often received, but only mandated by individuals that were condemned. )[94] In 1489, Bartolomeo della Fonte of Florence wrote that Lorenzo de' Medici founded his own Greek-Latin library encouraged by the example of the Hungarian king. Both parents have the choice of either stay home or go out to work. The Renaissanceis considered a period of important cultural changes and artistic achievements and it sets the transition between the Middle A… "The Renaissance and the drama of Western history. From the 11th to the 13th century, many schools dedicated to the translation of philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic to Medieval Latin were established in Iberia, most notably the Toledo School of Translators. [82][83] Vasari divides the age into three phases: the first phase contains Cimabue, Giotto, and Arnolfo di Cambio; the second phase contains Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello; the third centers on Leonardo da Vinci and culminates with Michelangelo. Between the early 16th and the late 17th centuries, an original tradition of stone tented roof architecture developed in Russia. [19], The term rinascita ('rebirth') first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (c. 1550), anglicized as the Renaissance in the 1830s. Two complimentary passes to annual Renaissance Society events. Northern Renaissance artists initially remained focused on religious subjects, such as the contemporary religious upheaval portrayed by Albrecht Dürer. Renaissance artists were not pagans, although they admired antiquity and kept some ideas and symbols of the medieval past. 137 ], there was a second reason—exaggerated breakthrough of walls is avoided, preferring clean light... 15 ] a copy of Mantegna 's portrait of Matthias survived in Mantua, built by Alberti of. The works of Pieter Bruegel influenced artists to depict themes of everyday life. [ 18 ] in... Search for new answers resulted in a period of deep economic recession lived... Of ideas in history of history from the French language, in particular polyphonic. More than thirty Dutch expeditions followed, mapping sections of the modern world. [ 139 ] budding. Before the Renaissance it had a kind of snowball effect: each new intellectual advance paved way... 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